Bangalore, Mook, Andrew Smith and Ted Veldkamp. 2016. “Exposure to Floods, Climate Change and Poverty in Vietnam.” Policy Research Working Paper 7765. World Bank Environment and Natural Resources Global Practice Group and the Climate Change Cross-cutting Solutions Area, July. documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/928051469466398905/pdf/WPS7765.pdf. The second focused on the application of energy efficiency and solar energy measures in the textile industry. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the UNFCCC (UNFCCC), which deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on. The agreement aims to address the global threat of climate change by maintaining a global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius this century and continuing efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Vietnam is extremely vulnerable to climate change due to its long coastline and many estuaries. That is why the country is developing a policy that is committed to taking action against climate change. Mitigation objectives and adaptation priorities are articulated in Nationally Defined Contributions (NSCs). Vietnam also quickly ratified the Paris Agreement and was one of the first countries to develop an action plan for the practical implementation of the agreement. This plan defines the necessary measures, responsibilities and specific support requirements.
However, the country does not yet have concrete implementation experience. The Vietnamese Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) is responsible for inter-ministerial cooperation in the implementation of national climate change goals. Governance and justice issues need to be clarified, not least because the climate goals that Vietnam has communicated at the international level have not yet been incorporated into national or sectoral legislation. Planning for the implementation of NDCs in cities and at the provincial level also needs to be developed and taken into account in national budgets. As part of this process, it is more practical to identify and implement targeted interventions than a system-wide review, given the unknowns and resource limitations. The latter ambitious approach would require resources beyond the resources available to a country like Vietnam, especially at the base, would confuse conscience and organization and create difficulties in implementation. “The NAMA project is essential for us to formulate these objectives and the corresponding guidelines and prepare for their implementation. The continued support has enabled us to strengthen Việt Nam`s position in international climate policy,” said Mr. Thành. The CAT forecast for 2030 for Vietnam differs by -4% to 6% compared to the current pre-COVID-19 political projection.
The CAT projections are presented as a range to account for the uncertainty surrounding the impact of the pandemic on Vietnam`s economic growth. In any case, emissions will increase sharply by 2030, without there being any signs of peaking. The magnitude of the increase in emissions will depend on a number of factors, including the direction of Vietnam`s political response to COVID-19, taking into account the significant resources made available, while the CAT projections are based on a series of GDP projections that adopt the same emission intensity. If Vietnam`s political backlash is fossil, emissions are likely to be high in 2030. If it abandons more of its plans to generate significant additional coal-fired electricity in favor of a transition to renewable energy, Vietnam could become the leader in Southeast Asia. Vietnam has set a new renewable energy target of 15-20% by 2030 and 25-30% for all primary supply by 2045, but it still has the second largest gas pipeline in Southeast Asia. The draft energy development plan 8 indicates that part of the proposed coal capacity is being phased out or postponed. .